Overpronation is a term that gets thrown around a lot by psuedo-experts and there is so much written online about it, that it can get very confusing to determine what is legitimate and what is not. Pronation is a normal motion of the foot that occurs when the ankle rolls inwards and the arch collapses. This is normal. Its not something evil. Overpronation is assumed to be when there is too much of it. There certainly is debate as to just how much is too much, as some people have large amounts and have no problems, other have small amounts and do have problems. It all comes down to individual differences and how much force is needed to stop the foot moving. The greater the force, regardless of the amounts of pronation, the more likely it is to be a problem. Some still like to debate if it is a problem or not. Some studies have shown that its not a problem and other studies have shown it is. If the data from all these studies are pooled, then the conclusion was that, yes, overpronation is a problem that was statistically significant, but it was only a small risk factor for problems. An associated finding of overpronation during a gait analysis is an abductory twist.
Over-pronation occurs when the foot collapses too far inward stressing the plantar fascia (the area underneath the arch of the foot.) Normally, one pronates every time he or she walks, but excessive pronation is called over-pronation. When this occurs it can cause pain in the feet, knees, hips, low back and even the shoulder. Decreasing over-pronation, which is very prominent in runners, will help add endurance, speed and efficiency to your run and ultimately place less stress on your body.
When standing, your heels lean inward. When standing, one or both of your knee caps turn inward. Conditions such as a flat feet or bunions may occur. You develop knee pain when you are active or involved in athletics. The knee pain slowly goes away when you rest. You abnormally wear out the soles and heels of your shoes very quickly.
If you have flat feet or low arches, chances are you overpronate. Although not always the case, the lower your arches the greater the overpronate. Stand on a hard surface (in front of a mirror if you need to) and look at your feet, flat feet or low arches are easy to spot. If your feet look flatter than a pancake, have a look at your ankles and see if they seem collapsed or straight. If they are, you're overpronating.
Non Surgical Treatment
Anti-Pronation Insoles provide a unique foot support system that aligns the lower body. The major cause of foot and leg pain is over pronation (rolling over of the feet) which causes excessive pressure on the muscles, ligaments and bones of the lower body. Running insoles treat the underlying cause of over pronation and prevent future occurrences of the associated foot or leg condition. A project conducted at the NIKE Sport Research Laboratory studied the effects of orthotics on rear foot movement in running. Nine well-trained runners who wore orthotics were chosen as subjects. The results of the study indicated that orthotics reduced rear foot movement by roughly one degree or approximately nine percent of the amount found in runners not using orthotics. The average reduction of the maximum velocity of pronation was fifteen percent. Thus this study indicates that orthotics and insoles control over pronation which will treat and prevent many sporting injuries.
Wearing the proper footwear plays a key role as a natural way to help pronation. Pronated feet need shoes that fit well, provide stability, contain supportive cushioning, are comfortable and allow enough room for your foot to move without causing pain or discomfort. Putting special inner heel wedges, known as orthotics, into your shoes can support a flatfoot while lowering risks of developing tendinitis, according to the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. More extensive cases may require specially fitted orthopaedic shoes that support the arches.